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Desember 10, 2009

BIOLOGY

Biology (life sciences) is the science of life. The term is derived from the Dutch "Biologie", which is also derived from the combination of the Greek word, βίος, bios ( "life") and λόγος, logos ( "symbol", "science"). In the past, until the 1970s, used the term life sciences (derived from Arabic, meaning "science of life").
Object of study of biology is vast and includes all living things. Therefore, the branch of biology known to many who specialize in each group of organisms, such as botany, zoology, and microbiology. Examined various aspects of life. Physical properties studied in anatomy, is its function in physiology; behavior studied in ethology, both in the present and past (learned in evolutionary biology and paleobiologi); How living things are created and studied in evolution; antarsesama beings and interaction with their environment studied in ecology;-inheritance mechanism is useful in maintaining the survival of a species living-studied in genetics.
We have even developed aspects of biology which studies the possibility of living things evolve in the future, is also the possibility of life on planets other than Earth, which is astrobiologi. Meanwhile, the development of enabling technology assessment at the level of organism constituent molecules through molecular biology and biochemistry, which many supported by the development of computational techniques through the field of bioinformatics.
Many developing biological sciences in the 19th century, the scientists discovered that organisms have basic characteristics. Biology is now the subject of school lessons and universities throughout the world, with more than a million papers are made each year in the broad composition of biological and medical journals. [1]

The origin of biological
Aristotle and the biology
Biology was pioneered by Aristotle, Greek scientists. In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy that examines the phenomena of nature, and covers areas that are now referred to as physics, biology, and other natural sciences.
Aristotle's natural history research on the island of Lesbos. Research results, including the History of Animals, Generation of Animals, and The Animals, with some observations and interpretations, and there are myths and mistakes. The important part is about the marine life. He separated from fish, marine mammals, and knowing that the sharks and rays are part of a group he calls Selachē (selachians). [2]
Establishment of modern biology
The term biology in the modern sense seems to be introduced independently by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur, 1802) and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Hydrogéologie, 1802). However, real biological terms have been used in 1800 by Karl Friedrich Burdach. In fact, earlier, the term has also appeared in the title of the book Michael Christoph Hanov to 3 volumes published in 1766, the Philosophiae Naturalis Physicae Sive Dogmaticae: Geologia, Biologia, Phytologia et Dendrologia generalist.
Coverage Biology
See main article List of Branches of Biology
At present, the academic field of biology covers a very broad, in contact with the areas of science other, and often viewed as an independent science. However, subdivision of biology has always followed three dimensions perpendicular to each other: the diversity (based on groups of organisms), the organization of life (level of study of living systems), and interaction (antarunit relationships between units of life and the lives of the environment).
Division of Organisms Based Group
Living creatures or organisms are very diverse. Taxonomic study of how organisms can be grouped according to similarities and differences they had. Furthermore, the various groups gatra learned all his life, so dikenallah plant biology (botany), animal biology (zoology), biology of insects (entomology), and so on.
Division of Life Based Organization
Life took place in an organized hierarchy. Hierarchy of organisms, from the smallest to the largest studied in biology, is as follows:
• cell;
• networks;
• organ;
• organ systems;
• individuals;
• population;
• community or society;
• ecosystems; and
• BIOMA.
Subindividu studies include cell biology, anatomy and its branches (cytology, histology and organological), and physiology. More detailed division may also occur. For example, the anatomy can be devoted to each organ or system (common in medical science): Pulmonology, cardiology, neurology, etc.).
Supraindividu levels studied in ecology, which also has its own specialization, such as Eco or "environmental physiology", Phenology, and behavioral science.

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