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Desember 06, 2009

IDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTION HISTORY

IDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTION HISTORY

ELECTION 1955
This is the first election in the history of the Indonesian nation. The Republic of Indonesia at that time was 10 years old. To say the election is a minimum requirement of democracy abgi, does that mean for the 10 years that Indonesia is not really democratic? Not easy to answer that question, too.
What is clear, in fact about three months after the proclaimed independence by Sukarno and Hatta on August 17, 1945, the government then has expressed a desire to be able to hold elections in early 1946. It was included in the Notice of X, or a Notice of Vice-President Mohammad Hatta dated 3 November 1945, which contains recommendations on the establishment of political parties.
Notice the mention, elections to choose members of Parliament and the Assembly will be held in January 1946. If then it is only the first election held after almost ten years later of course not without cause.

However, unlike the purpose intended by the Notice of X, the election is conducted twice in 1955. The first, on September 29, 1955 to choose members of Parliament. The second, December 15, 1955 to choose members of the Constituent Assembly. In a Notice of X only mentioned that the elections to be held in January 1946 was to elect members of the DPR and MPR, no Constituent Assembly.

Delay and the "deviation" is not without reason too. There are constraints from domestic sources and some are coming from overseas factors. Causation of the government's unpreparedness among others hold the election, either because the device is not yet available legislation to regulate the election due to low stability and security of the state. And last but not least, the cause of the attitude of the government is reluctant to hold the shift (circulation) of power regularly and competitively. The cause of the invasion of foreign powers such as requiring foreign country involved wars.

The first election was not conducted in January 1946 as mandated by the Edict of 3 November 1945, caused at least 2 (two) things:
1. Yet unprepared new government, including the drafting device Election Law
2. Not to state security instability due to internal conflicts between the political forces existing at the time, especially at the same time interference from outside is still threatened. In other words leaders more preoccupied by the affairs of the consolidation.
But does not mean that the consolidation of national power and expel colonial struggle, the government then did not intend to hold elections. There are strong indications that the government has the political will to hold elections. Example is the establishment of the Law No.27 year 1948 about the election, which was modified by Law No.12 year 1949 on the General Election. In the Law No.12/1949 mandated that elections will be a story (not direct). The nature of this indirect election didsarkan on the grounds that the majority of Indonesian citizens at that time are still illiterate, so that direct election would worry much distortion.

Then in the second half of 1950, when Mohammad Natsir of Masyumi became Prime Minister, the government decided to become election as a cabinet program. Since then the discussion began in Election Law again, which made Sahardjo oelh Committee and the Office of the Central Electoral Committee before then proceed to the parliament. At that time, Indonesia again became a unitary state, after the country since 1949 became a union with the name United States of Indonesia (RIS).

After the Cabinet Natsir fell 6 months later, the discussion of the bill followed by the government elections Sukiman Wirjosandjojo, also from Masyumi. Government when it tried holding elections for 57 UUDS 1950 article stated that members of Parliament elected by the people through general elections.

But the government also failed Sukiman complete discussion of the election laws are. This new law further discussed by the parliament completed during the reign of Wilopo from PNI in 1953. Thus was born the Act No.7 of 1953 on the General Election. This Act which became law umbrella held elections in 1955 that direct, general, free and confidential. Thus the Law No.27 year 1948 about the election that was modified by Law No.12 of 1949 which adopted a multilevel selection (indirect) for members of Parliament do not apply anymore.

It is noteworthy and proud that the first election was successfully held in safe, smooth, honest and fair and very democratic. 1955 election even got praise from various parties, including foreign countries. This election was followed by more than the 30 political parties and more than one hundred list of collections and individual candidates.

What is interesting from the 1955 elections is the high awareness of healthy competition. For example, although the prospective members of the House is the prime minister and minister of the ruling, they did not use state facilities and authority to subordinate officials to lead a profitable party voters.
Therefore, state officials figure is not regarded as a fearsome competitor and will win the election by any means. Because this election is for two purposes, namely selecting members of the House and elect members of the Board Kosntituante, the results presented it was necessary.

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