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Desember 10, 2009


Physics (Greek: φυσικός (physikos), "natural", and φύσις (physis), "Nature") is the science or the science of nature in the widest sense. Physics study of natural phenomena that are not life or matter within the scope of space and time. Physicists or physicists studying the behavior and properties of matter in a very diverse field, ranging from submikroskopis particles that form all the material (particle physics) to the behavior of the material universe as a whole cosmos.
Some properties are studied in physics is a trait that is present in all material existing systems, such as the law of conservation of energy. Such properties are often referred to as the laws of physics. Physics is often referred to as "the most fundamental science", because every other natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, etc.) to learn certain types of material systems that obey the laws of physics. For example, chemistry is the science of molecules and chemicals are formed. The nature of a chemical substance determined by the nature of the shape of molecules, which can be explained by physics such as quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and elektromagnetika.
Physics is also closely related to mathematics. Many physical theories expressed in mathematical notation, and the mathematics used is usually more complicated than the mathematics used in other science fields. The difference between physics and mathematics are: physics related to the description of the material world, whereas mathematics associated with abstract patterns are not always associated with the material world. However, this difference is not always apparent. There are vast areas of research are intersecting between physics and mathematics, namely mathematical physics, who developed the mathematical structure of physical theories.

Physics research at a Glance
Theoretical and experimental physics
The culture of physics research differs from other sciences because of the separation of theory and experiment. Since the twentieth century, most individual physicists specializing in theoretical physics research or experimental physics course, and in the twentieth century, few are successful in both fields. In contrast, almost all theorists in biology and chemistry is also a successful experimentalists.
Simply put, theorists tried to develop a theory that can explain experimental results that have been tried and can predict the results of experiments to come. Meanwhile, experimentalists develop and implement experiments to test the theoretical prediction. Although theory and experiment is developed separately, they are interdependent. Progress in physics usually arise when experimentalists make a discovery that could dijelaska existing theory, which requires that defined the new theories. Without experiments, theoretical research often walked in the wrong direction; one example is the M-theory, a theory popular in the high-energy physics, because experiments to test them have not been compiled.
The main physical theories
While discussing a wide range of physical systems, there are several theories used in physics as a whole, not in one area. Each theory is believed to be true, in particular the validity region. For example, the theory of classical mechanics can explain the movement of objects correctly, as long as this thing bigger than atoms and moving at speeds much slower than the speed of light. These theories are still studied; for example, remarkable aspect of classical mechanics known as chaos theory was discovered in the twentieth century, three centuries after formulated by Isaac Newton. However, only a few physicists who think the basic theories are distorted. Therefore, these theories are used as the basis for research into more specific topics, and all principals of physics, whatever specialty, are expected to understand these theories.

The main fields in physics
Research in physics is divided into several areas of study different aspects of the material world. Condensed matter physics, estimated as the biggest physics, studying properties of objects, such as solids and liquids we encounter every day, which comes from property and mutual interaction of atoms. The field of atomic physics, molecular, and optical dealing with individual atoms and molecules, and the way they absorb and remove the light. The field of particle physics, also known as "high-energy physics", studied the properties super-small particles smaller than atoms, including the basic particles that make up the other object. Finally, the field of astrophysics applies the laws of physics to explain the astronomical phenomena, ranging from the sun and other objects in the solar system to the universe as a whole.

Related field
There are many areas of research that mixes physics with other fields. For example, the specialized field of biophysics to the role of physics principles in biological systems, and quantum chemistry study how the theory of quantum mechanics gives an increase of the chemical properties of atoms and molecules. Some recorded below:
Acoustics - Astronomy - Biophysics - Physics calculation - Electronics - Engineering - Geophysics - Materials science - Physics math - Medical Physics - Chemical Physics - The Dynamics of vehicles - Physics Education
False theories
Cold fusion - the dynamic theory of gravity - luminiferous aether - orgone energy - theory of fixed
Main article: History of physics. See also the famous physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics.
Since time immemorial, people have tried to understand the nature of things: why objects that are not supported fall to the ground, why different materials have different properties, and so on. Another is the nature of the universe, such as the shape of the Earth and nature of celestial objects like the Sun and the Moon.
Some theories proposed and many of the wrong. A lot depends on the theory of the term philosophy, and was never confirmed by systematic experiments such as popular today. There are exceptions and anachronisms: for example, the Greek thinker Archimedes lowered many correct quantitative descriptions of mechanics and hydrostatics.
In the early 17th century, Galileo opens the use of experiments to confirm the theory of physics, which is the key to the methods of science. Galileo formulate and successfully tested several results from the mechanical dynamics, especially the inert Law. In 1687, Isaac Newton publishes Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, provides a clear explanation and a successful physical theories: Newton's laws of motion, which is the source of classical mechanics and Newton's Law of Gravitation, which describes the basic force of gravity. These theories fit in the experiment. Prinsipia also included several theories in fluid dynamics. Classical mechanics major developed by Joseph-Louis de Lagrange, William Rowan Hamilton, and others, who created the formula, principles, and new results. Law of gravity began astrophysics, which describes astronomical phenomena using physical theories.
From the 18th century onwards, thermodynamics was developed by Robert Boyle, Thomas Young, and many others. In 1733, Daniel Bernoulli used statistical arguments in classical mechanics to derive thermodynamic results, start the field of statistical mechanics. In 1798, Benjamin Thompson demonstrated the conversion of mechanical work in the heat, and in 1847 James Joule stated the law of conservation of energy, in the form of Panasa also in mechanical energy.
The nature of electricity and magnetism studied by Michael Faraday, George Ohm, and others. In 1855, James Clerk Maxwell unify the two phenomena into a single theory of electromagnetism, described by Maxwell's equations. Estimates of this theory is the light is an electromagnetic wave.
Future directions
The main article for this section are: unsolved problems in physics
Physics research is constant progress in many areas, and would remain so far in the future.
Condensed matter physics, theoretical problems is the biggest unsolved explain high-temperature superconductivity. Many attempts were made to make spintronik and quantum computers work.
In particle physics, the first piece of experimental evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model have begun to produce. The most famous is the designation that the neutrino has a mass of non-zero. The results of this experiment appears to have completed the solar neutrino problem which has long stood in the physics of the sun. Large neutrino physics is an experimental research area and the current theory. In the next few years, particle accelerators will begin to examine the energy scale in the range of TEV, which in which the experimentalists hope to find evidence for the Higgs boson and particles supersimetri.
The theory also tries to menyatikan quantum mechanics and general relativity into a theory of quantum gravity, a program that has been running for half a century, and still not produce fruit. The next candidate for M-theory, superstring theory and loop quantum gravity.
Many astronomical phenomena and kosmologikal not yet satisfactorily explained, including the existence of cosmic rays of ultra-high energy, baryon asymmetry, pemercepatan acceleration of the universe and the galaxy rotation anomaly.
Although much progress has been made in the high-energy, quantum, and astronomical physics, many everyday phenomena other concerns complex systems, chaos, or turbulens still little understood. Complex problems that seem to be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics, such as the formation of sand piles, "node" in water "trickling", katastrof theory, or self-sorting in a heterogeneous collection of vibrating still unsolved. This complex phenomenon has received more attention since the 1970s for several reasons, not the other due to lack of modern mathematical methods and computers that can calculate the complex system to be modeled in new ways. The relationship between the discipline of complex physics also has increased, as in turbulens lessons in aerodynamics or the observation of pattern formation in biological systems. In 1932, Lamb Horrace predicted:

"I'm old now, and when I die and go to heaven there are two things that I hope can be explained. One is quantum electrodynamics, and another is the movement of fluid turbulens. And I am more optimistic on the first ".

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