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Desember 10, 2009

POLITICS

Politics is the process of formation and distribution of power in society which, among other tangible decision-making process, especially in the country. [1] This understanding is a combination effort between the various different definitions of a political nature, known in political science.
Politics is the art and science to gain power constitutionally and nonkonstitusional.
Besides politics can also be traced from a different perspective, namely, among others:
• the political effort taken to bring citizens a common good (Aristotle's classical theory)
• politics are issues related to governance and the state
• politics is an activity that is directed to obtain and retain power in the community
• politics is all about the process of formulating and implementing public policy.
In the context of political understanding is necessary to understand some of the key, among others: political power, legitimacy, political systems, political behavior, political participation, political process, and is also important to know the ins and outs of the political parties.

Political Science
Political Theory
Political theory is the study of the concept of a political goal setting, how to achieve these goals and the consequences. Political discussion in the theory include political philosophy, the concept of the political system, state, society, sovereignty, power, legitimacy, state institutions, social change, political development, comparative politics, and so on.
There are many political systems developed by nations in the world include: anarchism, authoritarian, democratic, diktatorisme, fascism, federalism, feminism, religious fundamentalism, globalisme, imperialism, capitalism, communism, liberalism, libertarianism, Marxism, meritocracy, monarchy, nationalism, racism, socialism, theokrasi, totalitarianism, oligarchy, etc..
Political Institutions
In layman means an organization, but the institution could also be a habit or behavior pattern. Marriage is a social institution, well recognized by the state through the Civil KUA or in Indonesia and recognized by the community without state recognition. In this context an organization also is a pattern of behavior by giving the position on certain people to perform certain functions for the achievement of common goals, the organization can be formal or informal. Political institutions are patterned political behavior in the political field.
Election officials, the process of determining who will occupy a certain position and then perform a particular function (often as a leader in a field / specific community) is a democratic institution. Electoral institutions are generally not (or do it the Commission) but the whole pattern of behavior we find and determine who will become leaders or our representatives to sit in parliament.
The main problem in the middle of the country through the transition process to democracy such as Indonesia currently is the institutionalization of democracy. That is what makes the behavior of decision-making for and on behalf of the people could walk in accordance with democratic norms, which generally must be overcome is the change feudalistic institution (the patterned behavior is feudal, that there are certain positions to people based on birth or as a noble profession political and the other as ordinary people) into an open institution and reflects the desire of many to get welfare.
Necessary to institutionalize democracy and the legal and regulatory structural devices that will continue to encourage democratic behavior terpolanya to be a way of life. Because it is believed that with such a new real prosperity can be achieved, as each individual's rights are protected and even assisted by the state to be actualized, as each individual associated with other individuals in accordance with the norms and laws.
Party and Group
International Relations
In the classic form of international relations are relations between states, but in the development of this concept shifted to include all the interactions that take place across national borders. In its classical form of international relations is played only by the diplomats (and spies) in addition to soldiers in battle. While the new concept of international relations, international organizations, companies, nonprofit organizations, even individuals can be an actor who played an important role in international politics.
Role of multinational companies like Monsanto in the WTO (World Trade Organization / World Trade Organization) for example may be far greater than the role of the Republic of Indonesia. Transparency International corruption perceptions index report was in Indonesia has a large influence.
United Nations or the United Nations is the most important international organization, because almost all countries in the world are members. In the period of the cold war the UN must reflect the political realities of a bipolar and often can not make effective decisions, after the end of the cold war and the political reality tends to become unipolar with the United States as a hyper power Power, the United Nations become more effective relative to legitimize international action as multilateral action and rather than unilateral or unilateral action. U.S. efforts to gain support for the initiative to invade Iraq by involving the UN, is proof of the legitimacy of multilateralism needs to be done through the UN.
To overcome the various armed conflicts that often erupted rapidly in various parts of the world for example, currently there are proposals to create world peace forces (peace keeping force) which is fixed and is under UN command. This is expected to accelerate the reaction of the UN in resolving armed conflicts. When for example the UN has had such a permanent police at any time can be deployed by the Secretary General of the United Nations to operate in the UN operation. The UN police who became Civpol (Civilian Police / civilian police) East Timor's first time out of the Republic of Indonesia.
International relations has shifted away from the exclusive world of diplomats with all protocols and regularity, to the complexity of the possibility of anyone can be an actor and influence the political course of both global and local levels. On the other hand also seen the possibility of world government in the form of the United Nations, which directs the order of a nation (confederation?).
Community
is a group of people who inhabit the territory of a country.
Power
In political theory refers to the ability to make others do something that is not wanted. Max Weber wrote of the three sources of power: first the authority of legislation, secondly, from the mastery of violence as a weapon; third, from charisma.
Country
state is a territorial area in which there are a number of people who lived, and have the sovereignty to run the government, and being recognized by other countries. provisions of the above is a requirement according to the establishment of a state conference in Montevideo in 1933
Figures and thinkers of political science
Political figures
Political thinkers
Worldwide
Figures of Political Science thinkers from the classical theorists, modern and kontempoter include: Aristotle, Adam Smith, Cicero, Friedrich Engels, Immanuel Kant, John Locke, Karl Marx, Lenin, Martin Luther, Max Weber, Nicolo Machiavelli, Rousseau, Samuel P Huntington, Thomas Hobbes, Antonio Gramsci, Harold Crouch, Douglas E Ramage.
] Indonesia
Some thinkers and writers of the material of Political Science and International Relations of Indonesia are: Miriam Budiharjo, Salim Said and Ramlan Surbakti.
Political Behavior
Political behavior or (English: Politic Behavior) is a behavior done by human beings / individuals or groups to meet their rights and obligations as a human being politik.Seorang individuals / groups are required by the state to do the right and obligation to conduct political behavior as for the definition of political behavior examples are:
• Conducting elections to choose representatives / leaders
• Following and right into a political creature who follow a political party or parties, following the organization or community organizations or NGOs lsm
• Participate in a political party
• Come to criticize or reduce political actors berotoritas
• Eligible to become political leaders
• an obligation to undertake the rights and obligations as political beings to undertake political behavior that has been set either by the constitution and applicable laws and regulations

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