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Desember 10, 2009

GLOBALIZATION

Globalization is a term that has a relationship with and dependence on increased interconnection between nations and between peoples around the world the world through trade, investment, travel, popular culture, and other forms of interaction other so that the boundaries of a country is skewed.
In many ways, globalization has many similar characteristics with internationalization, so these two terms are often interchangeable. Some parties use the term globalization is often associated with a reduced role of the state or national boundaries.

Definition
The word "globalization" is taken from the global word, whose meaning is universal. Globalization does not have an established definition, but just a definition of work (working definition), so depending on which side one looks at it. Some see it as a social process, or processes of history, or natural process that will bring all nations and countries around the world increasingly bound to one another, create a new life order or unity of co-existence by eliminating geographic boundaries, economic and cultural community.
On the other hand, some see globalization as a project that was carried by the superpower countries, so that people could have a negative outlook or suspicious. From this standpoint, globalization is nothing but capitalism at its most recent. Countries a strong and rich will practically control the world economies and small states increasingly powerless not being able to compete. Therefore, globalization is likely to greatly affect the world economy, and even affect other areas such as culture and religion. Theodore was a passer-Levitte first time using the term globalization in 1985.
Features of globalization
Here are some features that indicate the growing phenomenon of globalization in the world.


Lower mudiknya ships goods to show linkages between countries in the world of human
• Changes in the concept of space and time. The development of items such as mobile phones, satellite television, and Internet show that the global communication occurs so rapidly, while the movement of such mass tourism allows us to feel a lot of things from different cultures.
• Market and economic production in countries different to be mutually dependent as a result of the growth of international trade, increasing influence of multinational companies, and the dominance of such organizations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
• Increased cultural interaction through the development of mass media (especially television, movies, music, and the transmission of news and international sports). This time, we can eat and experience new ideas and experiences on matters across a wide range of cultures, for example in the field of fashion, literature, and the food.
• Increased problems with, for example in the field of environment, multinational crisis, regional inflation and others.
Kennedy and Cohen concluded that this transformation has brought us to the globalisme, a new awareness and understanding that the world is one. Giddens asserts that most of us realize that we are actually taking part in a world that must be controlled to change without marked by taste and feel the same interest in things, change and uncertainty, and the fact that may occur. Similarly, Peter Drucker mentioned globalization as an era of social transformation.
The theory of globalization
Cochrane and Pain confirms that in relation to globalization, there are three positions that can be seen teroritis, namely:
• The globalis believe that globalization is a reality that has real consequences for how people and institutions around the world running. They believe that states and local culture will be lost buffeted by the global economic culture and homogeneous. however, the globalis do not have the same opinion about the consequences of the process.
• The positive and optimistic globalis respond well to such developments and stated that globalization will result in a tolerant world community and responsible.
• The pessimistic globalis argue that globalization is a negative phenomenon because it is actually a form of western colonialism (especially the United States) which forced a number of forms of cultural and consumption of a homogeneous and visible as a true surface. Some of them later formed a group to oppose globalization (anti-globalization).
• The traditionalists do not believe that globalization is happening. They argue that this phenomenon is a mere myth or, if any, have been exaggerated. They refer that capitalism has become an international phenomenon for hundreds of years. What we experienced today is an advanced stage, or evolution, from the production and trading capital.
• The transformasionalis was among the globalis and traditionalists. They agreed that the impact of globalization has been greatly exaggerated by the globalis. However, they also argued that the very foolish if we deny the existence of these concepts. This theoretical position argues that globalization should be understood as "a set of interlocking relationships with purely through a force, most of which do not occur directly". They claimed that this process can be reversed, especially when it is negative or, at least, can be controlled.
History of globalization
Many historians who call globalization as a phenomenon in the 20th century is associated with the rise of the international economy. And the interaction and globalization in international relations in the world has existed since many centuries ago. When traced, the seeds of globalization have grown as people begin to recognize antarnegeri trade around 1000 and 1500 AD At that time, traders from China and India began to explore another country either by road (such as the silk route) and the sea road to trade.

McDonald's phenomenon in the development of parts of the world shows seluroh globalization has
The next phase is marked by the domination of Muslim trade in Asia and Africa. Muslims form a trading network that included Japan, China, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malacca, India, Persia, the East African coast, Mediterranean Sea, Venice, and Genoa. In addition to forming a trade network, the Muslim merchants also disseminate the values of religion, the names, alphabet, architecture, social and cultural values to the citizens of the Arab world.
The next phase is marked by exploration of the world on a large scale by Europeans. Spanish, Portuguese, English, and Dutch is a pioneer, a pioneer of this exploration. This is supported also by the industrial revolution that increase linkages between nations of the world. various technologies started in and be the basis of current technological developments, such as computers and the Internet. At the time, flourished in the world of colonization brought a major influence on the diffusion of culture in the world.
Industry and the growing need for raw materials and markets also raises a variety of multinational companies in the world. In Indinesia example, since the open door policy, European companies to open many branches in Indonesia. Freeport and Exxon of the United States, Unilever of the Netherlands, British Petroleum of the UK are some examples. Multinational companies like this continue to be icons of globalization to date.
The next phase went ahead and got the momentum when the cold war ended and the collapse of communism in the world. The collapse of communism seemed to provide justification that capitalism is the best way to realize prosperity in the world. By implication, the world's nations began to provide themselves as a free market. This is supported also by the development of communication and transportation technologies. As a result, insulation, insulation between countries also began to blur.
Public reaction
Pro-globalization movement
Supporters of globalization (often also called the pro-globalization) consider that globalization can improve the welfare and economic prosperity of the world community. They are relying on the theory of comparative advantage that is triggered by David Ricardo. This theory states that a country with other countries are interdependent and can be mutually beneficial to each other, and one of its forms is the dependence of the economy. The two countries can do an exchange transaction in accordance with comparative advantage they have. For example, Japan has a comparative advantage in the digital camera products (capable of printing more efficient and high quality) while Indonesia has a comparative advantage in the fabric products. With this theory, Japan is recommended to stop the production of cloth and transfer of production factors to maximize the production of digital cameras, and then covered with a cloth shortage of supply purchased from Indonesia, and vice versa.
One major obstacle is the cooperation of the above restrictions and protectionist policies of the government of a country. On the one hand, this policy can protect domestic production, but on the other hand, this will increase the production cost of imported goods so difficult to penetrate the targeted country markets. The pro-globalisme not agree that there are protections and prohibitions, they want to do free trade policies so that the price of goods can be suppressed, as a result the demand will increase. Because the demand increases, prosperity will increase and so on.
Some pro-globalisme groups also criticized the World Bank and IMF, they argue that both the agency and the only control flow of funds to a country, not to a cooperative or company. As a result, many loans they gave to fall into the hands of dictators who then manipulate and use those funds as appropriate, to leave people in debt loops, and as a result, the level of prosperity will decline. Because decreased levels of prosperity, the country's society as a result was forced to reduce their consumption levels, including the consumption of imported goods, so that the rate of globalization will be blocked and - according to them - to reduce the level of welfare of the world's population.
Anti-globalization movement
The main article for this section are: anti-globalization

Anti-globalization movement
Anti-globalization is a general term used to describe the political attitudes of people and groups who oppose global trade agreements and institutions that regulate trade among countries such as the World Trade Organization (WTO).
"Anti-globalization" is considered by some as a social movement, while others consider them as a general term which covers a number of social movements different. Whatever the intention, the participants were united in opposition to the economy and the global trading system today, which erodes their living environment, labor rights, national sovereignty, the third world, and many other causes.
However, people who are branded "anti-globalization" is often reject the term, and they prefer to call themselves as the Global Justice Movement, the Movement of All Movement, or some other term.
Economic Globalization
Economic globalization is a process of economic activities and trade, that countries around the world into one market forces increasingly integrated with the territorial borders unimpeded state. Economic globalization requires the elimination of all restrictions and barriers to the flow of capital, goods and services.
As economic globalization occurs, the boundaries of a country will become blurred and the linkages between national economies with the international economy will be even tighter. Economic globalization on the one hand will open the market opportunities of the domestic products to international markets competitively, otherwise the entry is also open opportunities of global products into the domestic market.
According to Tanri Abeng, the real manifestation of economic globalization, among other things in the following forms:
• Globalization of production, where the company produces in various countries, with the goal menajdi production costs to be lower. This is done either because of low labor costs, tariffs are low, adequate infrastructure or because of political and business climate conducive. In this world becomes a global manufacturing locations.

The presence of foreign workers is a symptom of the globalization of labor
• Globalization of financing. Global companies have access to obtain loans or make investments (whether in the form of direct or portfolio) in all countries in the world. For example, PT Telkom in a telephone unit reproduce, or PT Jasa Marga in expanding the highway network has used the system with the pattern of financing BOT (build-operate-transfer) with mitrausaha overseas.
• Globalization of labor. Global companies will be able to use labor from around the world according to its class, such as the use of professional staff drawn from workers who have international experience or ordinary unskilled laborers from developing countries. With the globalization of human movement becomes easier and free.
• Globalization of information networks. Society of a country easily and quickly obtain information from the countries in the world due to technological advances, among others through: TV, radio, print media etc.. With a growing network of advanced communications have helped market expansion into different parts of the world for the same goods. For example: KFC, Levi's jeans, or hamburgers hit the markets everywhere. The result tastes-good world community who are living in cities or in villages, leading to global tastes.
• Globalization of Trade. This is manifested in the form of tariff reduction and harmonization and the elimination of various obstacles nontarif. Thus, trade and competition becomes more rapid, rigorous, and fair.
Thompson noted that the current claim globalis has occurred a rapid intensification of investment and international trade. For example, virtually the national economy has become part of the global economy is characterized by the existence of the world market forces.
Goodness of economic globalization
• Global production could be increased
This view is in accordance with the theory of 'comparative advantage' of David Ricardo. Through specialization and trade in factors of production can be used by the world more efficient, world output increased and the community would benefit from specialization and trade in the form of increased revenues, which in turn can increase spending and savings.
• Increasing prosperity in a country community
Freer trade allows people from various countries import more goods from abroad. This causes consumers have the choice of more goods. In addition, consumers can also enjoy better goods with lower prices.
• Broadening the market for domestic products
Foreign trade more freely allows each country to obtain a market much broader than the domestic market.
• Can get more capital and better technology
Capital can be obtained from foreign investment and especially enjoyed by developing countries due to lack of capital and expertise and the experience of educated faced by most developing countries.
• Provide additional funds for economic development
Development of industrial sector and various other sectors are not only developed by foreign companies, but especially through investment by domestic private companies. These domestic companies often need capital from banks or the stock market. funds from abroad, especially from developed countries who entered the money market and capital markets in the country can help provide the capital needed.
Evils of economic globalization
• Inhibit the growth of industrial sector
One effect of globalization is the development of foreign trade system more freely. These developments led to the developing countries can no longer use the Cleaner tariffs to provide protection to newly developing industries (infant industry). Thus, foreign trade more freely create barriers to developing countries to promote domestic industrial sector more quickly. In addition, reliance industries owned by multinational companies is increasing.
• aggravate the balance of payments
Globalization tends to increase imports of goods. Conversely, if a country is unable to compete, so exports are not growing. This situation can worsen the condition of balance of payments. Another adverse effect of globaliassi of payments balance of payments is the net factor income from abroad tend to be in deficit. Foreign investment increased flow causing many benefits payments (income) investment abroad is increasing. Export growth can not adversely impact on balance of payments.
• financial sector is increasingly unstable
One important effect of globalization is the drainage of investment (capital) portfolio is growing. These investments primarily include the participation of foreign funds into the stock market. When the stock market is rising, these funds will flow in, the balance of payments increased bathtub and value for money would grow better. Conversely, when stock prices decline in the stock market, domestic funds will flow out of the country, the balance of payments tends to become worse and the value of domestic currency slumped. Instability in the financial sector this can cause bad effects to the stability of overall economic activity.
• worsen the prospects of long-term economic growth
If the things stated above apply in a country, then dlam short-term economic growth becomes unstable. In the long term growth such as this will reduce the speed of economic growth. National income and employment will be slower growth and the unemployment problem can not be overcome or even worse. In the end, if the adverse effects of globalization to the prospects for long-term economic growth of a country, income distribution became increasingly unfair and socio-economic problems grew worse society.
Cultural globalization
Punk sub-culture, is an example of a growing culture of global
Globalization affects almost all aspects of local society, including cultural aspects. Culture can be defined as the values (values) are shared by society or the perceptions held by citizens of various things. Both the values and perceptions associated with psychological aspects / psychological, that is what is in mind. Psychological aspects become important if realized, that a person's behavior is strongly influenced by what is in the minds of people concerned. As one result of one's thoughts and findings are art, which is a subsystem of culture.
Globalization as a symptom of the spread of values and a particular culture throughout the world (to become the world culture or world culture) has been seen since a long time. Embryo culture from the spread of this world can be traced from the way the Western European explorers to various places in the world (Lucian W. Pye, 1966).
However, the development of intensive culture of globalization occurs at the beginning of the 20th with the development of communication technology. Contacts through the media replaces physical contact as the primary means of international communication. These changes make international communication easier, this led to more rapid development of cultural globalization.
Features of the development of cultural globalization
• The development of international cultural exchange.
• Spread the principle multikebudayaan (multiculturalism), and ease of access to an individual against other cultures outside the culture.
• The development of tourism and tourism.
• The number of immigration from one country to another.
• The development of a global fashion, such as clothes, movies and more.
• Increase the number of events at a global scale, such as the FIFA World Cup.

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