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Desember 10, 2009

GEOGRAPHY

Geography is the science of location and the similarities and differences (variation) of the spatial physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth. The word geography comes from the Greek ge ( "earth") and graphein ( "write", or "explain").
Geography is also the name of historical books on this subject, which is famous for writing Klaudios Ptolemaios Geography (second century).
Geography is more than cartography, the study of maps. Geography is not just answer what and where on the face of the earth, but also why there and not in other places, sometimes referred to as "location in space." Geography learn this, whether caused by nature or humans. Also studied the consequences of the differences that occur.

History Geography
The Greeks were the first people known to actively explore geography as a science and philosophy, with its main thinkers Thales of Miletus, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Aristotle, Dicaearchus of Messana, Strabo, and Ptolemy. The Romans contributed to the mapping as they explored new lands added new techniques. One technique is to Periplus, descriptions of ports and inland along the coastline to see the sailors off the coast; first example is Hanno the Navigator of Carthaginia and one from Erythraea Sea, the two survivors at sea using a technique Periplus by recognizing the Red Sea coastline and the Persian Gulf.
In the Middle Ages, Arabs such as al-Idrisi, Ibn Battuta and Ibn Khaldun maintain and continue to build a legacy of the Greeks and Romans. Marco Polo's journey, geography spread throughout Europe. During the Renaissance and the 16th century and 17 great voyages of the theoretical foundation for a more detailed and accurate. Geography generalists by Bernhardus Varenius and Gerardus Mercator world map is the biggest example.
After the 18th century, geography had become recognized as a discrete discipline and became part of the curriculum at universities in Europe (mainly in Paris and Berlin), but not in the United Kingdom where geography is taught only as a sub-discipline from other disciplines. One of the great works of this period was Kosmos: a sketch of a physical description of the Universe, by Alexander vom Humboldt.
For more than two centuries the quantity of knowledge and assistant devices are found. There is a strong relationship between geography to geology and botany, as well as economics, sociology and demography.
In the west, during the 20th century, the discipline of geography through four major phases: environmental determinism, regional geography, the quantitative revolution, and critical geography.
Environmental determinism is the theory that human and cultural characteristics caused by the natural environment. Deteriminisme fanatical adherents of the environment was Carl Ritter, Ellen Churchill Semple and Ellsworth Huntington. Popular hypotheses included "heat makes inhabitants of the tropics lazy" and "frequent changes in air pressure at latitude regions are making people more intelligent". Environmental determinist geographers try to make the study of such an influential theory. Around the 1930s this idea widely repudiated as lacking any basis and being prone to generalizations (often bigoted). Environmental determinism remains an embarrassment to many contemporary geographers, and leads to skepticism among geographers with claims of environmental influence on culture (such as Jared Diamond's theory).
Reaffirm regional geography topic of geography was space and place. Regional geographers focused on the collection of descriptive information about a place, as well as the appropriate method to divide the world into several regions. The philosophical basis of this study was introduced by Richard Hartshorne.
The quantitative revolution was geography's attempt to redefine itself as a science (science), in the wake of interest in science following the launch of Sputnik. Quantitative revolutionaries, often referred to as "space cadets", states that the purpose of geography was to test the general agreement on the spatial arrangement of phenomena. They adopted the philosophy of positivism from the natural sciences and mathematics - especially statistics - as a way to test the hypothesis. The quantitative revolution laid the groundwork for the development of Geographic Information System.
Although the approach of positivism and post-positivist remain important in geography, and critical geography arose as a critique of positivism. The first is the emergence of human geography. Drawing on the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology, humanist geographers (such as Yi-Fu Tuan) focused on humans and its relationship with the place. More influential was Marxist geography, which applied the social theories of Karl Marx and his followers to geographic phenomena. David Harvey and Richard Peet are well-known Marxist geographers. Feminist geography, as the name suggests, uses ideas from feminism in geographic contexts. The most recent strain of critical geography is the geography of the post-modernists, who took the idea of post-modernist theory and post-structuralists to explore the social construction of spatial relations.
Method
Spatial relations is the key to this synoptic science, and using maps as the main tool. Classical cartography combined with geographic analysis approach that is more modern then produce Geographic Information System (GIS)-based computer.
Geographers use four interrelated approaches:
• Systematic - Groups geographical knowledge into categories that can be explored globally
• Regional - Learn a systematic relationship between the categories for a particular region or location on the planet.
• Descriptive - Simply specifies the locations of features and populations.
• Analytical - Asks why we find a problem and populations in specific geographic areas.
Branch
Physical Geography
This branch focuses on geography as an Earth science, using biology to understand the patterns of global flora and fauna, and mathematics and physics to understand the movement of the earth and its relationship with members of another solar system. It also includes landscape ecology and environmental geography.
Related Topics: atmosphere - archipelago - continent - desert - island - the form of the earth - ocean - sea - river - lake - ecology - climate - soil - geomorphology - biogeography - Timeline of geography, paleontology - paleogeografi - hydrology.
Human geography
Branches of non-physical geography also called anthropogeography focus on the social science, non-physical aspects that cause the phenomenon of the world. Study how humans adapt to the land and to other people, and the macroscopic transformation of how humans play a role in the world. Can be divided into: economic geography, political geography (including geopolitics), social geography (including geography town), feminist geography and military geography.
Related Topics: The countries in the world - country - nation - state - personal union - province - county - city - municipality
Human-environment geography
During the period of environmental determinism, geography was not a study of spatial relationships, but about how humans and the environment interact. although understanding of environmental determinism has died out, there is still a strong tradition of geographers addressing the relationships between people and nature. There are two areas of human-environment geography: the political ecology and cultural impact of risk-reduction research. many environments that have been destroyed by humans, should have a human duty to maintain and preserve the environment, nature may have strong ankan not stand it anymore.
Planning and Regional Development
Geography Branch is a relatively new branch. Developed around 1980 by the European Geografiwan, especially from the Netherlands. As University cooperation between the two countries carried out, some experts Geography Dutch origin participated in the transplant program at UGM lecturers. The result was the birth of a new course called Studies Program Planning and Regional Development is now better known as Regional Development Studies Program. Before standing became a separate discipline that combines science with Science Geography of Regional Planning, the project is known as the Rural and Regional Development Planning (RRDP).
Cultural and political ecology
Cultural ecology emerged as the work of Carl Sauer in geography and thinking in anthropology. Cultural ecological study how humans adapt to their natural environment. Science sustainability (sustainability) and grew from this tradition. Political ecology arose when some geographers used aspects of critical geography to look at relations of power and how they affect humans. For example, an influential study by Michael Watts argued that famines in the Sahel are caused by changes in political and economic systems in the region as a result of colonialism and the spread of capitalism.
Risk-reduction research
Research on hazards began by Gilbert F. White, who tries to understand why people live in flood plains in disaster-prone. Since then, this area developed into a multi-discipline by studying natural disasters (like earthquakes) and technological disasters (such as nuclear reactor meltdowns). Geographers studying hazards are interested in the dynamics of the disaster and how people and societies deal.
Historical geography
This branch of seeking an explanation of how the culture of various places on earth to grow and become like now. A study of the earth is one of many keys in this field - much can be deduced about the influence of past societies on the environment and surroundings.
What's in a name? Historical geography and the Berkeley campus
"Historical Geography" course, a reciprocal effect of geography and history. But in the United States, has a meaning more specific. The name was introduced by Carl Ortwin Sauer of the University of California, Berkeley to his program of reorganizing cultural geography (some say all geography) in all areas, starting in the early 20th century.
For Sauer, the face of the earth and the cultures in it could only be understood when studying the effects (physical, cultural, economic, political, environmental) through history. Sauer emphasizes the study area as the only way to get the specifics of the region above the earth.
Sauer's philosophy is the main building geographic thought in America in the mid-20th century. Until now the study area was still part of geography departments on college campuses in the U.S.. But many geographers think this would endanger the science of geography itself for the long term: the cause is too much data collection and classification, while the analysis and too little explanation. This study became more area specific as later geographers trying to find the right name for this. Perhaps this is what caused the crisis in the 1950s that nearly destroyed geography as an academic discipline.
Geographic Techniques
Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing is a translation of the term remote sensing is the science, technology and art in obtaining information about objects or phenomena in the (near) the earth's surface without direct contact with the object or phenomenon under study, but through the media objects or phenomena recorders that use energy derived of electromagnetic waves and make the results of the recording in the form of images. Understanding 'with no direct contact' here can be interpreted in a narrow and broad. Narrowly means that there is no contact between objects with analysts, such as satellite imagery data is processed and transformed into a map of surface temperature distribution at the time of recording. Broadly means that the contact is possible in the form of activity 'ground truth', namely the collection of field samples to base modeling through interpolation and extrapolation to the region is much broader and at higher Detail.
At the beginning of remote sensing is less seen as part of geography, cartography compared. Even so, they gradually realized that remote sensing is the only major tool in geography that could provide Synoptic overview - the view succinctly but thoroughly - over an area as a starting point for further study. Remote sensing is also capable of producing various kinds of spatial information in the context of ecological and regional studies that characterize the geographical. In addition, the percentage side, remote sensing education in the United States, Australia and Europe over many areas of science provided by (department, 'school' or school) geography.
In terms of the method used, known as remote sensing methods of manual or visual and digital remote sensing methods. Remote sensing image using printed manual or 'hard copy' (aerial photographs, image scans skaner on airplanes and satellites) through the analysis and interpretation manual / visua]. Using digital remote sensing images in digital format, such as digital cameras captured, scanned aerial photographs that sudha printed, and scanned by the satellite sensor, and analyzed with computer assistance. Both manual and digital methods to produce maps and reports. Map of the manual method can be converted into digital thematic maps through digitisasi process (often termed digitasi). Manual method is also sometimes done with the help of computers, namely through the process of interpretation on the screen (on-screen digitisation), which directly reduce the digital map. Digital image analysis methods reduce digital thematic maps directly. Digital maps can be tersebutd out'lay 'and printed for a cartographic product (called the base cartographic dat), but can also menjaid input (input) in a geographic information system as a geographic database. Maps to menjaid next toak point in running the study geografiwan geography.
Cartography
Cartography study the representation of the earth's surface with abstract symbols. You could say, without much controversy, cartography is the cause of the widespread geography studies. Most geographers recognize that their interest in geography began when they were fascinated by the maps in their childhood. although other subdisciplines of geography rely on maps to show the results of analysis, creation of maps is abstract enough to be regarded separately.
Cartography evolved from a collection of techniques into an actual science. Cartographers have to understand the cognitive psychology and ergonomics to create a symbol of what is appropriate for representing information about the earth that can understand other people effectively, and behavioral psychology to influence the reader understand the information made. They also must learn geodesy and mathematics are not simple to understand how the shape of the Earth affects the distortion of the projection into the plane.
Geographic Information System
Geographic Information Systems deals with the storage of information about the earth with a computer automatically via the information accurately. In addition to the other subdisciplines of geography, GIS specialists must understand computer science and database systems. GIS cartographic revolution so that now nearly all mapmaking is created with the software (software) SIG.
Quantitative Methods Geography
Geographic quantitative methods deal with numerical methods peculiar to (or at least most commonly found) in geography. In addition to the spatial analysis, you may find the cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and test non-parametric statistics in geographic studies.
Related Fields
Urban and Regional Planning
City and regional planning to use geography to help learn how to build (or not develop) the land according to certain criteria, such as safety, beauty, economic opportunities, preservation of the built or natural heritage, and so on. City planning, both small towns and big cities, or rural planning might be regarded as though the applied geography may be seen more art and history lessons. Some of the issues facing planning among the rural exodus and the city and Smart Growth (Smart Growth).
Regional Science
In the 1950s, regional science movement arose, led by Walter Isard to generate more quantitative and analytical base to geographical questions, in response to the qualitative approach of traditional geography programs. Regional science knowledge of the spatial dimension plays a fundamental role, such as regional economics, resource management, location theory, urban and regional planning, transportation and communication, human geography, population distribution, landscape ecology and environmental quality.
Geography of Higher Education
In Indonesia, the open university geography courses as a pure science only two public universities (University of Indonesia (UI) and UGM (Universitas Gadjah Mada) and one private university (Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta). The Geography of Education courses in 45 universities.
UGM, Geography has evolved further to become a separate faculty since 1963, the Faculty of Geography. We have already had a high education level of the D3 (diploma) Remote Sensing and GIS, S1, S2 and S3. Faculty of Geography Gadjah Mada University also studied the area of Planning and Development.

In the UI, the Department of Geography Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (MIPA). Geography studied as part of applied sciences in parallel with pure Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
UMS Faculty of Geography was founded by a number of alumni and faculty Faculty of Geography Gadjah Mada University. The Geography of Higher Education Alumni then formed a professional association called the Association of Indonesian Geografiwan (IGI). In addition, in a more narrow container, the Geografiwan from GMU also has a container Geografiwan Association Gadjah Mada University (abbreviated IGEGAMA).
Bakosurtanal, one non-departmental government institution (Officials) met many alumni Geography, both from the UI, UGM and UMS.

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