Desember 10, 2009


Science is the conscious effort to explore, discover and enhance human understanding of the various aspects of reality in human nature [1]. These aspects are limited to formulations produced definite. Science provides certainty by limiting the scope of his views, and the certainty of science obtained from limitations [2].

Example: Natural Sciences can only be sure after the field is limited bahani into things (material only), or the science of psychology can only predict human behavior, if limiting the scope of his views to the general terms of concrete human behavior. With regard to this example, the natural sciences to answer questions about how far away the sun from the earth, or the science of psychology to answer whether a suitable young woman to become a nurse.

* 1 Etymology
* 2 The requirements of science
* 3 models, theories, and laws
* 4 Mathematics and the scientific method
* 5 The areas of science
o 5.1 Natural science
o 5.2 Social Sciences
Applied science o 5.3
* 6 theme-related
* 7 See also
* 8 See also
* 9 External links
o Resource 9.1

[edit] Etymology

The word science itself is a loan word from the Arabic 'ilm "[3] which means understanding, understand, or know. In regard to the absorption of said, science may mean to understand a knowledge, and social sciences can mean knowing the social problems, and so forth.
[edit] The requirements of science

In contrast to knowledge, science is a special knowledge which the person knows what the cause of something and why. There's something scientific requirements can be called science [4]. Scientific nature of science as a requirement paradigm influenced the natural sciences that already exist first.

1. Objective. Science must have an object of study consists of one group of the same issues nature of nature, looking from the outside and form from the inside. Object can be there, or maybe there still must be tested for existence. In a study object, which sought is the truth, the correspondence between knowing the object, and so-called objective truth, not subjective based on research subject or the subject of research support.
2. Methodists were the efforts made to minimize the possibility of irregularities in the search for truth. The consequence of this effort is to have a certain way to ensure the certainty of truth. Methodist derived from the Greek word "Metodos" which means: way, road. In general, methodical means that certain methods used and generally refers to the scientific method.
3. Systematic. On his way trying to find out and describe an object, the science must be broken down and terumuskan in regular contact and thus form a logical system that meant a whole, comprehensive, integrated, able to explain the sequence of cause and effect regarding the object. Knowledge arranged systematically in a causal sequence is the third science requirement.
4. Universal. Truth to be achieved is the universal truth of a general (non-specific). Example: all 180 ยบ angled triangle. Hence the universal is the fourth science requirement. Later, the social sciences to realize the level of general (universal) which contains different from the natural sciences since its object is human action. Therefore, to achieve the level of universality in the social sciences, must be available and a specific context.

[edit] Modeling, theory, and the law

Main article: Scientific method

The term "model", "hypothesis", "theory", and "law" has different meanings in science than the general understanding. The scientists use the term model to explain something, in particular that can be used to make assumptions that can be tested by experiment / experiment or observation. One hypothesis is that allegations not supported or proved by experiment, and the laws of physics or the laws of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observation.
[edit] Mathematics and the scientific method

Mathematics is very important for science, especially in the role it plays in expressing scientific model. Observing and collecting the results of measurements, as a hypothesis and conjecture, would require a mathematical model and exploitation. Branch of mathematics that is often used in science including calculus and statistics, although virtually all branches of mathematics has its application, even the field of "pure" as number theory and topology.

Some thinkers see mathematicians as scientists, with the assumption that a mathematical proof-proof equivalent to the experiment. Some others do not regard mathematics as a science, because it does not require experimental tests of the theory and hypothesis. However, the assumption behind it, the fact the importance of mathematics as a very useful tool to describe / explain the universe has become a major issue for the philosophy of mathematics.

See Eugene Wigner, The unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics.

Richard Feynman said, "Mathematics is not real, but it felt real. Where is the place to be?", While Bertrand Russell was pleased to define mathematics as "a subject that we never know what we're talking about, and we do not know all the truth." ->
[edit] Fields of science
[edit] Natural science

* Physics
o Acoustics
o Astrodinamika
o Astrophysics
o Astronomy
o Biophysics
o Physics Atomic, Molecular, and Optical
o Physics of solid materials
o Physics computing
o Dynamics
o Fluid Dynamics
o Vehicle Dynamics
o Physics materials
o Mathematical Physics
o Nuclear Physics
o Particle physics (or high energy physics)
o Plasma Physics
o Physics of polymer
o Cryogenic
o Mechanics
o Optics

* Biology
o Anatomy
o Physical Anthropology
o Astrobiologi
o Biochemistry
o Biophysics
o Bioinformatics
o Freshwater Biology
o Cell Biology
o Biological structures
o Molecular Biology
o Biological growth
o Biology evolutionary growth ( "Evo-devo" or the evolution of growth)
Biology o sea
o Botany
o Ecology
o Entomology
o Epidemiology
o Evolution (Evolutionary biology)
o Fikologi (Algologi)
o phylogeny
o Physiology
o Genetics (Population Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics)
o Histology
o Health Sciences
+ Pharmacology
+ Hematology
+ Imunoserologi
+ Medical
+ Dentistry
Veterinary +
+ Oncology (cancer science)
+ Toxicology
o Neuroscience
o Immunology
o Kladistika
o Microbiology
o Morphology
o Ontogeny
o Pathology
o cytology
o Taxonomy
o Virology
o Zoological

* Chemistry
o Biochemistry
o Electrochemistry
o Materials science
o Analytical chemistry
o Inorganic Chemistry
o Physical Chemistry
o computational chemistry
Quantum chemistry o
o Organic Chemistry
o Spectroscopy
o Stereochemistry
o Thermochemistry

* Earth Science
o Geodesy
o Geography
o Geology
o Limnology
o Meteorology
o Oceanography
o Paleontology
o Seismology

[edit] Social sciences

* Anthropology
o Archaeological
* Economy
* Political Science
* Linguistics (Language Sciences)
* Psychology
o Analysis of behavior
o Biopsychology
o neuropsychology
o Psikofisika
o Psychometric
o Psychological experiments
o Forensic Psychology
o Psychology humanist
o industrial and organizational psychology
o Psychology of personality
o Health Psychology
o Clinical Psychology
o Cognitive Psychology
o Psychology of education
o Psychology growth
o psychology sensation and perception
o Social Psychology
* Sociology
* Law

[edit] Applied Sciences

* Computer science and informatics
o Computer Science
o Cognitive Sciences
o Informatics
o Cybernetics
o Systemics
* Engineering
o biomedical science
o Agricultural Sciences
o Electrical Engineering
o Agricultural Engineering
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